日式鞋

穿和服的时候要穿草屐或木屐。现在所穿鞋的模型是于江户时代(1603-1867)完成的。皮革不将脚全部遮盖住是木屐的最大特征。木屐由叫做“台”的鞋底和木屐带组成。将脚全部覆盖住的是短布袜。
至今为止都不知道为什么会穿戴这种样式的鞋,据说是日本人以为脚趾用力走路会比较重要吧。习惯穿草屐或木屐的人穿上袜子反而会觉得脚趾没法用力,走起来好像漂在空中似的。草屐或木屐的缺点是没法保护脚不受攻击。如果坐挤满了人的电车的话,很有可能被别人踩到脚,如果是被女性的高跟鞋踩到了,有时候还会受伤。
日本的夏天很闷热。皮鞋不透气容易长脚癣。女性如果长时间穿高跟鞋的话容易出现外反拇指。而穿草屐或木屐,既不用担心长脚癣,也不用担心外反拇指,所以说它们是适合日本气候的鞋。

短布袜

短布袜全部是由棉做成的。分为夏季用和冬季用。穿短布袜的时候如果不起褶皱就会被认为质量好。一般的袜子都是由橡胶固定,短布袜则是由纽扣方式固定。穿短布袜时由两个小巧门儿,有的人不知道这些于是仅仅穿个短布袜就要30分钟时间,简直是天方夜谈。短布袜分为穿大脚趾和其他4个脚趾的两部分。袜子左右脚一般都能穿,而布袜左右脚是固定好了的。

足袋

china8no2

 


木屐

鞋底用木头做成的叫木屐,木屐分为很多种。根据样式和表面做工的不同名字也不一样。在日本回到家一般都时要脱鞋的。很多旅游景点也都张贴着不能穿鞋入内的牌子。如果因为不注意而穿了有洞的袜子会很不好意思。门口一定有放鞋子的叫“木屐柜”,即便现在都是放一般的鞋子的鞋柜,也依旧叫“木屐柜”。

桜の木の台 花緒は二石
下駄
漆の下駄


 

草屐、雪屐

用稻草编的鞋叫草屐。现在虽然写成草屐,但鞋底一般用软木,软木上贴了牛皮的也叫草屐。也有鞋底用软木,鞋面用草席面的草屐。男性穿雪屐比草屐要多。用竹子做成鞋底,在底部贴上一层皮垫。软木传到日本之前鞋底没法粘牛皮。软木是在1900年代以后传入日本的。

草屐

china8no7china8no9

 


木屐带子

○○ 固定脚和鞋面的叫木屐带子。将木屐带装到鞋上叫“镶入”。手艺高超的“镶师”镶入木屐带的话,木屐大小正好合适,即便被别人踢,木屐都不会脱落。买质地好的木屐可以穿很久,只需要缓缓木屐带就可以了。皮质的木屐带子远在江户时代就有了。天鹅绒在南蛮贸易的时候传到日本。当人们渐渐认识到这种纺织品最适合做木屐带时,日本便开始纺织丝织的天鹅绒了。最初大家都不知道该如何纺织。有一次从荷兰船只的天鹅绒上发现了铁线,才学会如何纺织。1644年精度的西阵开始纺织天鹅绒。

china8no12

china8no13

 

china8no14

 

 

从上面的图,我们只能看到横带和横带交接处。前带和后带绑在鞋底的背面。木屐根据种类的不同反面也不同。草屐的反面因为贴了皮革所以看不出来是木屐带子。栓木屐带子的不分时可以随时打开的。


日式鞋的特征

china8no10china8no3

china8no11

故意让脚后跟露出来。如果鞋面比较长的话,走起路来下摆会夹在鞋面和后脚跟之间,倘若踩上会很危险。横带交界处在鞋面的中央。日式鞋历史资料馆里有横带交界处靠大脚趾的木屐,现在都是栓在中央。这样的话,左右脚都可以穿。一般是赤脚穿木屐。如果第四个脚趾和小脚趾超出鞋面穿木屐的话,会被认为很帅气。

和服经商 中文

“和服经商”是面向日本人介绍和服的网页。一个很偶然的机会和一个中国留学生相识。于是请她将这个网页翻译成了中文。由于该网页的管理人完全不懂中文,所以概不接受提问,请谅解。
世界上不同的民族有不同的衣服。岛国日本因其固有的文化而产生了和服。虽然我不是民族衣服的研究家,但是我相信与日本一衣带水的中国、韩国的民族衣服有很大的不同。和服不是能简单说明得了的衣服。通过本网站能使您对和服有一丝了解得话将感到不胜荣幸。
在此,向将本网站翻译成中文的留学生王娟表示感谢!

china9no1

The traditional folk costume of Japan

kimono and japanThis site introduces the kimono which is the traditional folk costume of Japan . The kimono is called ‘Wafuku’. ‘Wafuku’ is a word made to distinguish Japanese style clothes from Western style after the Meiji Age (1868-1912). European clothes are called ‘Yofuku’.
The shops which sell the kimono are called ‘ drapers’ . The origin of draper dates back to the Ojin Emperor’s era . The Ojin Emperor was the Emperor at the 15th generation . He sent a messenger to the Kingdom of Wu , which was named after the Dynasty of China at that time , and a specialist engineer was invited . The weavers were called ‘ kure-hatori’ in the Yuryaku Emperor’s era . ‘Kure-hatori’ was also the name of the clothes coming from the Kingdom of Wu. The Yuryaku Emperor was the 21st Emperor. It is believed that he passed away in 479 .
For a long time ,the Emperor, the Royal family and their close advisers conducted the affairs of state . As time progressed , the aristocracy changed into the ‘Warrior Rule’ code. The Political system of Japan changed so that the Emperor reigned , but did not govern . Japan learned a lot of things from China and Korea. The gifts from these countries were kept carefully in Japan’s warehouse . The warehouse is called ‘shosoin’ . Existing ‘shosoin’ is only one bulding in Todaiji . Today , the Imperial Household Agency is keeping the treaure which was in ‘shosoin’ . Since there are many treasures, investigation, research, and restoration are performed even now.
A long time passed. After Portuguese came ashore at Tanegashima in 1543, European culture went into Japan . The gun and Christianity were introduced into Japan for the first time . A lot of missionaries came to preach after Francisco Xavier had come to Kagoshima in 1549 . At that time , Japan was in a long civil war . Nobunaga Oda , a Lord in Japan , used guns for war , cleverly than any other warlord . Although conditions were favorable for him , he was betrayed by his vassal and he was assassinated . Hideyoshi Toyotomi, who was Nobunaga’s lieutenant, ended the civil war successfully.

nanban-shipHowever , Hideyoshi Toyotomi , who became the ruler of Japan at that time , did a foolish thing . Nobunaga had heard various stories from the ‘nanbanjin’ which was name given to the Portuguese and Spanish traders. It was heard that there was still a country to the west of the Kingdom of Ming . When Japan was finally united , Nobunaga had the dream of conquering the Kingdom of Ming . The Japanese people did not imagine having a war against the Kingdom of Ming in those days , but Nobunaga was a bold and forceful character . A lot of soldiers were farmers at first, and the war was fought during the famer’s leisure season , but ,the number of professional soldiers steadily increased over the long war.
Hideyoshi started fighting in Korea for his own ambition as well as to fulfill Nobunaga’s dream and also to support more soldiers for his army . He disarmed the farmers of weapons while the war was outside the country . After Hideyoshi died in 1597 , Japan was able to withdraw from Korea in 1598 . Though there was no goodness in the war , there was something in Korea concerning clothes that did not exist in Japan ,before . This was cotton. Cotton had been imported since just before the war started . The soldiers returned to Japan with the seeds of cotton , and it was imported from the ‘nanbanjin’ . They succeeded in the cultivation of cotton in Japan , at last. Ordinary people wore hemp, the upper classes wore silk at that time .

Wool fabric and fleece was not made in Japan in this age , as there were no sheep on the islands. Wool was very expensive and valuable . Sheep stock raising was begun during the Meiji Age (1868-1912) .
Hideyoshi put out the Kirishitan banishment order in 1587. However , at that time , because the trade had been encouraged , the effect of the Kirishitan banishment order was limited . The Japanese decided to mimic the foreign clothes and tried to tailor them for the kimono . There is a kimono type which has a Portuguese origin .
At this time , Hideyoshi did not have a son , so he nominated his nephew as his successor . When he was 56 years old , however his son was born .The nephew , Hidetsugu , was so shocked he became crazed . Hideyoshi took advantage of this , and forced Hidetsugu to commit suicide . He also killed many of Hidetsgu’s family and staff. Sadly, Hideyoshi died while his small son was still only 3 years old . The child was bequeathed the nation from his doting father .
Five people were placed in charge of politics while the son grew up . One of these five , Ieyasu Tokugawa , became the next head of Japan . The Hideyoshi Toyotomi side was broken by war in 1600 . The Goyozei Emperor appointed Ieyasu Tokugawa as the Generalissimo shogun in 1603 . The capital was moved from Kyoto to Edo . Edo is the present capital city Tokyo . This was the start of the Edo Age . This period , from the banishment by Nobunaga Oda of Yoshiaki Ashikaga from Kyoto to the death of Hideyoshi Toyotomi , is called Azuchi-Momoyama Age (1568-1600). The political system in the Edo Age was established by Ieyasu and his son Hidetada and grandchild Iemitsu . Ieyasu reconciled with Korea in 1605. Tribute came fron Korea whenever the Generalissimo changed after 1607 .

oiranWool fabric and fleece was not made in Japan in this age , as there were no sheep on the islands. Wool was very expensive and valuable . Sheep stock raising was begun during the Meiji Age (1868-1912) .
Hideyoshi put out the Kirishitan banishment order in 1587. However , at that time , because the trade had been encouraged , the effect of the Kirishitan banishment order was limited . The Japanese decided to mimic the foreign clothes and tried to tailor them for the kimono . There is a kimono type which has a Portuguese origin .
At this time , Hideyoshi did not have a son , so he nominated his nephew as his successor . When he was 56 years old , however his son was born .The nephew , Hidetsugu , was so shocked he became crazed . Hideyoshi took advantage of this , and forced Hidetsugu to commit suicide . He also killed many of Hidetsgu’s family and staff. Sadly, Hideyoshi died while his small son was still only 3 years old . The child was bequeathed the nation from his doting father .
Five people were placed in charge of politics while the son grew up . One of these five , Ieyasu Tokugawa , became the next head of Japan . The Hideyoshi Toyotomi side was broken by war in 1600 . The Goyozei Emperor appointed Ieyasu Tokugawa as the Generalissimo shogun in 1603 . The capital was moved from Kyoto to Edo . Edo is the present capital city Tokyo . This was the start of the Edo Age . This period , from the banishment by Nobunaga Oda of Yoshiaki Ashikaga from Kyoto to the death of Hideyoshi Toyotomi , is called Azuchi-Momoyama Age (1568-1600). The political system in the Edo Age was established by Ieyasu and his son Hidetada and grandchild Iemitsu . Ieyasu reconciled with Korea in 1605. Tribute came fron Korea whenever the Generalissimo changed after 1607 .

Japan was opened to the outside world at the request of the American Commodore Perry . The Japanese people who attended his arrival were very surprised by his iron clad ships . This event heralded the begining of the Meiji Age . At this time, Western culture was widely adopted by the upper classes so that Japan wouldn’t be seen as such a barbarous country in the West . The Imperial household made clothes for the Royal family in the formal Western style . Western style clothes gradually became the norm for the elite classes while ordinary people continued to wear kimono .
Men took to Western style clothes earlier than women. The Meiji Emperor had his hair bobbed . The Meiji Government was promulgated in 1871 and decreed that men’s top-knot could be cut , they also made a professional army and police force ,and started to use uniforms of Western style.

daigakufter the Meiji Age, Japan became an open country which engaged with foreign countries again . The Meiji Govern-ment however,feared becoming colonized by Europe or America . The Japanese Government of that time made various reasons for war , and fought the Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, and in the First World War. Thought these three wars were won , the Second World War ended in defeat for Japan in 1945. Revision of the Constitution of Japan was carried out, and it specified renunciation of war.
Althought ordinary women were continuing wearing the kimono, during the World War may people changed to ‘Monpe’. ‘Monpe’ were work clothes made at the Edo Age. Ordinary men wore the khaki national uniform of Western style clothes at this time. After the World Japanese people were very poor , and so returning to kimono was difficult in Post war Japan . From this time most , Japanese do not wear kimono in daily life .
The people wearing kimono every day are in the minority . If you go to see those who wear the kimono , one way to see Japanese classic culture . If you go to ‘kyougen’, ‘noh’,’bunrak’,’kabuki’,’sumo wrestling’ or ‘kabuki, folk costume of old Japan can be seen .
There are many reasons why the Japanese stopped wearing kimono except on special occasions . There are a lot of rules kimono . For example, a kimono must be chosen to suit the occasion it is worn for . There are various rules for how and when to wear kimono as a custom .

e1no5Kimonos are not put on as easily as dresses . The body is moved difficultly when it wears kimono , but with practice it becames comfotable . Practice is required until the body can do automatically move while wearing a kimono . Otherwise it is difficult to move gracefuly.
The kimono must careful treatment for preservation and maintenance . The kimono of silk has low light resistance , so it must be careful maintained to protect it against mold.
The kimono is not easy on the purse . The cast of a good quality kimono is similar to that of a small car . This can get you into a lot of trouble !
The kimono has a mystic force . The kimono chooses the wearer , at times . The kimono shows elegance and graces the wearer who puts it on , or alternately looks graceless and crass . This is because the mind of the person who chooses the kimono appears in that kimono . I think that such clothes are special , even if they are seen all over the world .
My job is sewing kimono ♥ . Tailoring the kimono is called ‘Wasai’ . An excellent kimono can’t be sewn by sewing machine , it must all be hand-sewn . If one wants to put on a kimono for a long time , it is better for the kimono not to be made on a sewing machine . Kimono is made of a flat pattern clothing-construction . If the thresd is pulled on the kimono , it returns to it’s former square cloth shape . ‘Wasai’ sews straight except for the neck line of kimono and the collar of the coat for kimono. Paper patterns are not used for sewing kimono except for the collar of the coat for kimono. Kimono can be tailored more freely than dresses . If the kimono is of good quality and is treated with care , it may be able to be worn over three generations .

About when buying kimono

The ‘draper’ was a shop that sells the silk kimono cloth . The ‘futomono’ was a shop that sold the cotton cloth and the hemp cloth . The cloth shop and the tailoring shop were separate. The ‘draper’ that did both the cloth selling and the tailoring appeared in the Edo Age . There is no store called the ‘futomono’ nowadays. The ‘draper’ sells the cloth for the kimono, and the tailoring is subcontracted. Ready-made kimonos are sold in the ‘draper’ recently. Except for these ready-made articles it takes some time to tailor kimono . It is best to think that from one to two months is necessary sewing time for tailoring kimono .